TB has many manifestations, affecting bone, the central nervous system, and many other organ systems, but it is primarily a pulmonary disease that is initiated by the deposition of , contained in aerosol droplets, onto lung alveolar surfaces.
From this point, the progression of the disease can have several outcomes, determined largely by the response of the host immune system.
Scientists say they’ll someday be able to use CRISPR to fight cancer and maybe even bring animals back from the dead. Jad and Robert delve into how CRISPR does what it does, and consider whether we should be worried about a future full of flying pigs, or the simple fact that scientists have now used CRISPR to tweak the genes of human embryos. Humans are incredible tool makers but their ethical capacities and long term thinking are way behind their ability to make tools.
Really well done and useful program- and extremely scary. Carl Zimmer's inability to understand Robert's cringe was an example of how slow we can be to imagine the consequences of the tools we make and prepare for them.
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone.
This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate.
The whole thing was so obnoxiously over-produced and jump cuts mid-sentence more than a popular youtuber on adderall.
So many stupid and obvious answers to things too that I actually feel dumber for having listened to this over dramatized drivel.
The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.
The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 10 DNA stores biological information.